PBSR - Abstracts
For abstracts of articles in recent volumes of the PBSR follow this link.
Abstract from Papers of the BSR Vol. 83 (2015)
Moulding cultural change: a contextual approach to anatomical votive terracottas in Central Italy, fourth-second centuries BC
pp. 1-28 Rafael Scopacasa
This article demonstrates how a contextual approach to material culture can help us think about the link between Roman hegemony and cultural change in republican Italy. It does this by focusing on a particular set of artefacts — anatomical votive terracottas — which have been seen to indicate the spread of Roman and/or Latin culture in central Italy. Although the use of anatomical terracottas may have begun in the vicinity of Rome, communities in central Italy actively engaged with these artefacts according to their own cultural dispositions. Such signs of local agency are especially visible in the way that worshippers in the Apennine areas of central Italy favoured votive terracottas depicting legs, feet and hands, instead of reproductive organs which were more popular in the Tyrrhenian zone.These findings emphasise the key role of local cultural practice in shaping the effect of accelerated political change on the micro-level.
Monumenta columbariorum integra reperta. Analisi di un complesso monumentale presso Porta Maggiore
pp. 29-64 Francesca D’Andrea.
This article provides a reconstruction of a Roman funerary complex that was discovered near the Porta Maggiore in Rome at the end of the nineteenth century (1871), using excavation reports and drawings, archival photographs, topographical indications and epigraphic materials. This paper examines the inscriptions discovered inside these tombs, which have been published in the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL VI, 5961–6148), but attributed to the wrong funerary context. Thanks to two photographs taken by John Henry Parker in 1871, we can now ‘re-place’ these inscriptions in their original burial chamber. The objective of this study is to use this varied evidence to contribute to our understanding of the archaeological and topographical development of this area, through an analysis of the different periods in which this burial ground was utilized. (Article in Italian)
Victimarii in Roman religion and society
pp. 65-90 Jack J. Lennon
This paper brings together literary, epigraphic and iconographic evidence for the victimarii — the attendants responsible for slaughtering sacrificial animals in ancient Rome. It aims to explore the problematic status of victimarii in Roman society, and argues that the often hostile views of the aristocracy have led to the continued marginalisation of this prominent group within scholarly discussions of religion and society. It argues that when the various strands are considered together a far more positive view of victimarii within Roman society emerges, suggesting that this was in some respects one of the most respectable of professions among the slave and freedman communities.
Barbers, barbershops and searching for Roman popular culture
pp. 91–110 Jerry Toner
This paper looks at one particular group of non-élite tradesmen — barbers — to see what they can tell us about popular culture, primarily in the city of Rome in the early Empire. It begins by looking at the significance barbers had in wider cultural discourse. Grooming the hair sat under that difficult umbrella term, cultus, which related to all manner of adornment and refinement. A key question for the study of ancient popular culture is whether it is possible to see through this largely élite literary construction and discern something of the underlying realities of everyday life. The paper argues that some level of plausible reconstruction is possible and outlines what characteristics can be discovered about non-élite life. But popular sociability in the barbershop raised concerns among élite writers and the paper examines these as a way to understand the nature of the relationship between popular and élite cultures.
Saint Catherine of Siena’s tomb and its place in Santa Maria Sopra Minerva, Rome: narration, translation and veneration
pp. 111–148 Joan Barclay Lloyd
By examining the historical narratives of Saint Catherine of Siena’s death and burial this paper sheds new light on the liturgical layout of the Dominican church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome c. 1380. Since then Saint Catherine’s remains have been translated five times, and at each translation, the form and decoration of her sepulchre has changed, showing how different aspects of her life were commemorated at each renewal of her tomb. These transformations are examined in the light of what survives today and of other literary documentation. Particular attention is given to the way Catherine was represented before and after her canonization in 1461. This explains why a relief attributed to Donatello that has been associated with her tomb may date c. 1430, while a figure of the saint by an artist close to Isaia of Pisa was made c. 1466. The paper also examines the consequences of placing the tomb under the altar of the Capranica Chapel in 1579, and of moving the monument under the high altar of the church in 1855, when Santa Maria sopra Minerva was restored according to neo-gothic principles. Each phase of her tomb shows how Catherine has been venerated from 1380 until the present.
What Francesco di Giorgio saw on the Capitoline Hill c. 1470
pp. 149–174 Jason Moralee and Kiel Moe
Francesco di Giorgio, the Sienese architect and artist, visited Rome c. 1470. By looking at his plan of the ‘porticho del Champitolio’, it is possible to reconstruct not only what Francesco di Giorgio saw on the Monte Tarpeo, but also what Poggio Bracciolini, Flavio Biondo, Pietro del Massaio and others saw there. It was apparently a notable site, an evocative ruin worthy of commentary, artistic representation, and imaginative reconstruction. Whatever temple remains continued to be visible, however, these were insufficient to suggest that they were originally part of the temple. By the end of the fifteenth century, the temple had been lost. Nonetheless, Francesco di Giorgio unwittingly documented the last standing columns of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus.
Virgil’s fourth eclogue and the visual arts
pp. 175-220 L.B.T. Houghton
Virgil’s poetry has frequently appeared in illustrated editions, and regularly has provided subjects for other works of art, including some of the most celebrated masterpieces of the western tradition. In view of its constant appropriation in literary contexts over the course of the centuries, we might expect the famous fourth Eclogue (the so-called ‘messianic’ eclogue) to have exerted more of an impact on visual culture than it appears to have done. This paper considers some of the possible reasons for the apparent scarcity of engagement with Virgil’s poem beyond the literary sphere, and examines the uses to which the poet’s text is put when it does make an appearance in visual media — perhaps more often than has sometimes been supposed.
Stuart and Stuardo: James III and his Naepolitan cousin
pp. 221–244 Edward Corp
King Charles II’s first illegitimate son, the little known Jacques de La Cloche, married a lady in Naples and had a posthumous son, born in 1669 and known as Don Giacomo Stuardo. Although his father was illegitimate and he himself a Catholic, Stuardo hoped that he might one day become King of England. The Glorious Revolution resulted in opposition between supporters of the Protestant Succession to the British thrones and supporters of the exiled Catholic Stuarts, James II and then his son James III. When the Protestant Queen Anne was succeeded by the unpopular Hanoverian George I in 1714, James III was still unmarried and had no children, so Stuardo hoped that James might recognise him as the Jacobite heir. When James married and had two sons, Stuardo hoped that his cousin would at least receive him as a Stuart prince. All his attempts to meet James III and secure recognition were unsuccessful, and he died disappointed and in poverty in about 1752. In the tercentenary of the Hanoverian Succession, enough archival information has finally emerged to provide a study of the life of this alternative claimant to the British thrones.
William Gell and Pompeiana (1817-19 and 1832)
pp. 245–282 Rosemary Sweet
This article offers an analysis of the preparation, publication and reception of the two separate versions of Pompeiana, texts that exercised a formative influence over Victorian understanding of not just Roman Pompeii, but of domestic Roman life more broadly throughout the nineteenth century, and which highlight a transition from eighteenth-century antiquarianism to a more ‘archaeological’ approach to the past in the nineteenth century. Using unpublished correspondence that has been overlooked by other scholarship on Gell, it argues that the form and content of the volumes responded to both contemporary fascination with the history of domestic life and the need for an affordable volume on Pompeii. But the volumes also reflected many of Gell’s more personal interests, developed in a career of travelling in Greece, Asia Minor and Spain, and were a product of his circumstances: they were conceived in order that Gell (and his co-adjutor J.P. Gandy in the first edition) might earn much-needed additional income and were a means through which Gell could consolidate his social position in Naples by establishing his authoritative expertise on Pompeii.
Notes from Rome 2014–15
pp. 283-292 Robert Coates-Stephens
This gazette presents to the reader outside Rome news of recent archaeological activity (primarily in 2014, but also in the first part of 2015), gleaned from public lectures, conferences, exhibitions and newspaper reports.
Abstract from Papers of the BSR Vol. 82 (2014)
Mourning deaths and endangering lives: Etruscan chariot racing between symbol and reality
pp. 1–40 L.M. Banducci
This paper examines the iconographic and archaeological evidence for chariot racing in Etruria, its context and audience. We then focus on the representation of the chariot crash — a motif pervasive in Etruscan art on a variety of locally-produced artistic media. The incongruous depiction of the most exciting, dangerous and tragic occurrence in the race alongside scenes of banqueting and dancing complicates our understanding of Etruscan tomb painting and of funeral ritual. Images of chariot crashes reveal an Etruscan appreciation for Greek epic, while also reflecting real details of the burial rite and the nature of élite competition.
Approaching road-cuttings as instruments of early urbanization in central Tyrrhenian Italy
pp. 41–72 Juha Tuppi
The landscape of central Tyrrhenian Italy became increasingly engraved with roads cut deep in the ground in the course of the seventh and sixth centuries BC. This development was due mainly to pragmatic reasons, such as the need for better infrastructure and transport facilities resulting from increased vehicular traffic between and within regions. In addition to providing logistical benefits, road cuttings also contributed to developing the socio-political aspects of the proto-urban centres of central Italy through their monumentality, which arguably was utilized in politicizing territorial landscapes as well as in enhancing funerary rituals. In this paper I examine road cuttings as instruments of urbanization in iron age and Archaic central Italy by attempting to present a point of view from which the road cuttings in central Italy are seen not only as pragmatic facilities, but also as building blocks of landscapes of power and identity. This goal is approached by using the methods of landscape archaeology and phenomenology in a study of 110 road cuttings from central Italy and their relations to their physical surroundings.
The procession and placement of imperial cult images in the Colosseum
pp. 73–108 Nathan T. Elkins
The Colosseum is well understood as a dynastic monument that was key to the Flavian building programme and to Flavian ideology. From this point of view it has been approached as the fulfillment of Augustus’s ambition for a large-scale amphitheatre, as serving to diminish Nero’s memory given that it was constructed on the atrium of his dismantled Golden House, and as a victory monument built with the spoils of the Jewish War. One important political aspect of this dynastic monument has been largely overlooked: its connection with emperor worship. Outside Rome, it is well known that amphitheatres served as a venue for the procession and placement of imperial cult images; in Rome, the Circus Maximus and the theatres were venues for the display of imperial images and attributes brought in during their respective pompae. Through the deployment of textual, topographical and visual evidence, this article demonstrates that the Colosseum also had a pulvinar that displayed images and attributes of the gods and divi brought in during the pompa. The location of the pulvinar and the mechanisms by which it was serviced are explored, as are the ideological implications of cultic activity in the Colosseum.
Minor centres in the Pontine Plain: the cases of forum Appii and AD Medias
pp. 109–134 Gijs Tol, Tymon de Haas, Kayt Armstrong and Peter Attema
Although both the urban and rural landscapes of Roman Italy have received due attention in current debates on the Roman economy, this is less true for the highly variable group of intermediate sites, here conveniently labelled as ‘minor centres’, and their role within economic networks. This contribution focuses attention on two such sites, Forum Appii and AD Medias, situated in the Pontine plain (Lazio, central Italy) along the Via Appia. After addressing issues of definition and the current state of research, we approach the potential functions of such sites through geographic models. Next, we discuss the results of a programme of geophysical surveys and field walking on both case-study sites. The results obtained suggest that, although far from being a uniform settlement class, minor centres could perform crucial functions within local and regional economies. Based on the present data, Forum Appii developed into a centre of craft production and, with its river port, also became a trade hub of regional importance. AD Medias primarily functioned as a small centre provisioning and servicing travellers and the local rural population. To conclude the article, we consider the implications of the results obtained in terms of future research strategies.
‘Municipium Apuliae, cui nomen Barium est’: profilo storico e paesaggio urbano. Per una rilettura della documentazione archeologica
pp. 135–174 Custode Silvio Fioriello
In this article the historical profile and the urban landscape of the ancient city of Bari in the Roman period will be examined. This will be achieved through the careful gathering and timely analysis of the available archaeological evidence, from past excavations and recent projects, and also by considering this evidence in the light of the information available from literary, epigraphic and numismatic sources. This study thus aims to rewrite, in a global context and over a long time-span, the detailed historical circumstances and the complex settlement framework of the municipium of Bari, which is documented by and debated through — in the broadest context, taking into account the whole Apulian-Adriatic region — the complex archaeological stratification, the forms of institutional and social organization, the dynamic role assumed by the topographical context in both the urban and rural environment, the character and uniformity of the material culture, and the nature of the limited but significant monumental evidence. [Article in Italian]
pp. 175–198 Josephine Crawley Quinn, Neil McLynn, Robert M. Kerr and Daniel Hadas
There is a widespread idea that the people we call ‘Phoenician’ called themselves ‘Canaanite’. This article argues that the only positive evidence for this hypothesis, a single line in the standard editions of Augustine’s Unfinished Commentary on Paul’s Letter to the Romans where he claims that ‘if you ask our local peasants what they are, they answer ‘Canaanite’’, is prima facie highly unreliable as historical evidence, and on closer inspection is in fact almost certainly an editorial error: our examination of all the manuscripts — the first to have been carried out — established that what the peasants were really asked in the archetype was not quid sint — what they are — but quid sit — ‘what is it’, a phrase which would most obviously refer to their language. While this new reconstruction of the archetype does not necessarily mean that quid sit was what Augustine originally wrote, this passage cannot be used as positive evidence for Canaanite identity in late antique North Africa, or anywhere else.
Archaeology and epic: Butrint and Ugolino Verino’s Carlias
pp. 199–236 Paul Gwynne, Richard Hodges and Joanita Vroom
The Epirote port of Butrint (now in Albania) features significantly in the neo-Latin epic, the Carlias, by the Florentine Ugolino Verino (1438–1516). This poem was recast on the occasion of the invasion of Italy by Charles VIII of France, to encourage the young king to imitate his ancestor Charlemagne and undertake a crusade. This essay focuses upon the poetic description of Butrint in the light of recent excavations. It reconstructs the run-down character of this fortified Venetian town as well as the material living conditions of its occupants in 1493. The essay considers how Verino’s narrative was shaped by literary sources rather than the actual circumstances in the port.
Antiquarianism and the Villa of Pamphilj on the Janiculum Hill in Rome
pp. 237–264 Susan Russell
The Janiculum Hill in antiquity was a place of noble villas, military triumphs, ancient burials and Christian martyrdoms, all of which were recorded and interpreted in various ways in the antiquarian maps and literature of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Many of its associations had significance to the Pamphilj family, who bought a modest vigna there in 1630, not long after Giovanni Battista Pamphilj (1574–1655) became cardinal. In the fourteen years that separated the purchase of the vigna and the elevation of Cardinal Pamphilj to the papal throne as Innocent X (1644–55) more land was acquired in the area, and the Casino del Bel Respiro, the Pamphilj’s palazzo di rappresentanza at the Villa Pamphilj, was eventually built some distance from the original farmhouse, its entrance directly facing the dome of Saint Peter’s. The villa played an essential role in constructing a public image for the Pamphilj that was inseparable from their claims to descend from the very founders of Rome, claims that were delineated by Niccolò Angelo Cafferri in his genealogy of the Pamphilj, a work initiated by Cardinal Girolamo Pamphilj (1544–1610) and published in 1662. This paper discusses how Cafferri’s genealogy and antiquarian scholarship in Rome contributed to the selection of the Casino’s site, design, decoration and iconology.
Pietro Santi Bartoli’s ‘pitture antiche miniate’: drawings of Roman paintings and mosaics in Paris, London and Windsor
pp. 265–314 Helen Whitehouse
Pietro Santi Bartoli was esteemed for his elegant ‘ancient pictures in miniature’, based on the records he made of new discoveries in Rome, but few of the collections made by his patrons survive intact. This paper reconstructs one such, by combining the contents of two sets of coloured drawings, one in London (RIBA Drawings Collection) and the other in Paris (Bibliothèque Nationale de France) to produce a series of records that includes some little-known discoveries of the 1680s. The relationship between Bartoli’s sketchy on-site records and the coloured ‘miniatures’ is examined via the ‘Vittoria album’ at Windsor, which contains many of his preparatory drawings.
Notes from Rome 2013–14
pp. 315–322 Robert Coates-Stephens
This gazette presents to the reader outside Rome news of recent archaeological activity (primarily in 2013, but also in the first part of 2014), gleaned from public lectures, conferences, exhibitions and newspaper reports.
Abstract from Papers of the BSR Vol. 81 (2013)
The concentration and centralization of late prehistoric settlement in central Italy: the evidence from the Nepi Survey
pp. 1-38 Ulla Rajala
This article discusses the evidence for the concentration and centralization of late prehistoric settlement in central Italy, using the territory of Nepi as an example of settlement aggregation in southern Etruria. This example helps to explain the regional developments leading to urbanization and state formation in Etruria from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age. The article also publishes the new sites with late prehistoric ceramic material from the Neolithic or Epineolithic to the Iron Age in the territory of Nepi found during the Nepi Survey Project. This new evidence is discussed together with previously published material, and presented as further evidence that the developments leading to the occupation of the final bronze age naturally defended sites had their origins in the Middle Bronze Age. Similarly, the analysis, aided by agricultural and GIS modelling, suggests that the hiatus in the settlement and its dislocation after an apparent break between the Final Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age may have been caused by population pressure. After the settlement aggregated in one centre at Nepi, there are signs of further expansion in the Iron Age.
Approaching monumental architecture: mechanics and movement in Archaic Etruscan palaces
pp. 39–66 Gretchen E. Meyers
This paper reassesses the architectural setting of a group of monumental buildings dating to the sixth century BC from the Etruscan area of central Italy, sometimes referred to as palaces, or palazzi. Although scholars traditionally have focused on classifying the buildings, the architectural form is here examined through close comparative analysis of spatial mechanics and movement. Focusing on case-studies from Poggio Civitate (Murlo) and Acquarossa, the author reconstructs the architectural processes of movement, particularly between the exterior and interior spaces arranged around a characteristic courtyard, and concludes that the structures are indicative of a unique Etruscan experience rather than that of Mediterranean palaces more generally. The author calls for a shift away from attempts to categorize these monumental structures in favour of a close analysis of spatial experience in order to explore better their architectural impact and function
Triumph and civil war in the late Republic
pp. 67–90 Carsten Hjort Lange
Many of the wars of the Late Republican period were largely civil conflicts, and there was thus a tension between the traditional expectation that triumphs should be celebrated for victories over foreign enemies and the need of the great commanders to give full expression to their prestige and charisma, and to legitimate their power. Most of the rules and conventions relating to triumphs thus appear to have been articulated as the development of Roman warfare brought new issues to the Senate’s attention. This paper will examine these tensions and the ways in which they were resolved. The traditional war-ritual of the triumph and the topic of civil war have both received renewed interest in recent scholarship. However, attempts to define the relationship between them have been hampered by comments in the ancient evidence that suggest the celebration of a triumph for victory in a civil war was contrary to traditional practices. Nevertheless, as this paper will argue, a general could expect to triumph after a civil war victory if it could be represented also as over a foreign enemy (the civil war aspect of the victory did not have to be denied); only after a victory in an exclusively civil war was this understood to be in breach of traditional practices.
The marble plan of the Via Anicia and the Temple of Castor and Pollux in Circo Flaminio: the state of the question
pp. 91–128 P.L. Tucci
Much has been written in the past three decades about the marble plan found in the Via Anicia, which depicts the late Republican Temple of Castor and Pollux in Circo Flaminio, and its importance for the study of temple architecture and ancient cartography. Far less attention has been paid to the identification of the temple in the topography of the southern Campus Martius. In 1996 an excavation carried out in Piazza delle Cinque Scole brought to light the remains of a ‘monumental building’ that has been identified resolutely by the excavators as the Temple of Castor and Pollux. In this article, after a survey of what is known from the marble plan and previous excavations, I explain why my alternative location of the temple better fits the evidence from the Via Anicia plan and the 1996 excavation. I also shed new light on the area of the circus from the late Republican period to late antiquity and on transverse cella temples.
Excavating the Roman peasant II: excavations at Case Nuove, Cinigiano (GR)
pp. 129–180 Emanuele Vaccaro, Mariaelena Ghisleni, Antonia Arnoldus-Huyzendveld, Cam Grey and Kim Bowes
This report details the survey, excavations and materials analysis carried out at Case Nuove (GR) in Tuscany, a site identified by surface survey as a possible rural house, but which excavation and materials analysis suggest was a small-scale agro-processing point of late Republican date. Through accompanying analysis of pollen and land-use data, the article considers the problems this type of site – the stand-alone agro-processing point – presents for interpretations of the Roman landscape.
Marble use and reuse at Pompeii and Herculaneum: the evidence from the bars
pp. 181–210 J.C. Fant, B. Russell and S.J. Barker
The marble-clad surfaces of the numerous bars or shops (so-called thermopolia) of Pompeii and Herculaneum are a vast and hitherto untapped source of information about marble use beyond the confines of public building and élite houses. Four field seasons of survey work at these cities have documented 49 bars at Pompeii and eight at Herculaneum with over 8,000 pieces of stone, mainly marble. This paper discusses the results of this project: first, the types of stone used on these bars and how they were displayed; second, what their quantities and distribution, within these cities and on individual bars, reveal about the pervasiveness of the wider pan-Mediterranean marble trade; third, what we can say about where these materials came from and how they were acquired, and what this in turn reveals about the economics of re-use of architectural materials in the Vesuvian cities.
Imaging the Golden Age: the coinage of Antoninus Pius
pp. 211–246 Clare Rowan
Given that few ancient accounts of the reign of Antoninus Pius survive from antiquity, other monuments, in particular coinage, become important in reconstructing his reign. In this article coin hoards are used to reconstruct a quantitative understanding of Pius’s numismatic imagery. It is clear from the results that the three different coin metals (gold, silver and aes) differed in their messages: while gold coinage emphasized the imperial family and the concept of pietas, silver and aes coinage focused on the emperor’s concern for the grain supply (annona). This broad understanding of Pius’s numismatic image is supplemented by more detailed analysis of coin iconography in particular years. The liberalitas and Britannia series of Pius are explored in depth. The study highlights coinage’s role as one imperial monument among many, contributing to the communication of imperial ideologies. It is clear that the image of Pius as a virtuous emperor ruling in a ‘Golden Age’ was one cultivated by the imperial bureaucracy, and so it is not surprising that the concept features in the preserved texts. The long-term impact of Pius’s coinage is also considered. In the absence of significant quantities of aes coinage struck by the Severans, the coinage of Pius continued to be of importance in many regions throughout the third century, conveying impressions of Empire among users well after the emperor’s death.
A late antique statuary collection at Ostia’s sanctuary of Magna Mater: a case-study in late Roman religion and tradition
pp. 247–278 Douglas Boin
Throughout the Mediterranean the study of the destruction, reuse, moving and preservation of statues has provided a window onto the transformation of Rome during a time of ascendant Christianity. The preservation of statuary collections is increasingly important in this regard. Archival research has revealed the discovery of one such collection at Ostia’s Sanctuary of Magna Mater, a treasure trove of sculptures, reliefs and at least one bronze statue. All were well preserved, and several were found in the open spaces of the sanctuary. Together they span 500 years of history, stretching into the late fourth century. Unfortunately, the late antique significance of this group has never been acknowledged. This paper situates that collection within the social world of late antique Ostia, where many statues of both sacred and non-sacred subjects remained on display. The late fourth-century dedication, in particular, set alongside the earlier pieces, demonstrates that the ‘mood and motivations’ of traditional Roman religion, in Clifford Geertz’s terms, also remained quite visible. The presence of this accumulated tradition, a hallmark of Rome’s ‘civil religion’ for centuries, testifies to the high social status afforded one of Ostia’s most historic sites, even during an increasingly Christian age.
Architecture and élite identity in late antique Rome: appropriating the past at Sant’Andrea Catabarbara
pp. 279–302 Gregor Kalas
The conversion of a fourth-century secular basilica into the church of Sant’Andrea Catabarbara in Rome during the 470s invites a discussion of how architectural adaptation contributed to the identity of its restorer, Valila. More than a century after the praetorian prefect of Italy, Junius Bassus, founded the basilica in 331, a Goth named Valila, belonging to the senatorial aristocracy, bequeathed the structure to Pope Simplicius (468–83). References to Valila’s last will in the church’s dedicatory inscription were inserted directly above Junius Bassus’s original donation inscription, inviting reflections upon the transmission of élite status from one individual to another. The particularities of Valila’s legacy as a testator, as indicated in the references to his will in the Sant’Andrea Catabarbara inscription and confirmed by a charter he wrote to support a church near Tivoli, suggest that he sought to control his lasting memory through patronage. Valila’s concern for a posthumous status provides a context for interpreting the interior of the Roman church. Juxtaposed to the church’s fifth-century apse mosaic were opus sectile panels depicting Junius Bassus, together with scenes of an Apollonian tripod and an illustration of the exposed body of Hylas raped by two nymphs originating from the earliest phase of the basilica. The article proposes that Valila nuanced his élite identity by preserving the fourth-century images and thereby hinted that preservation fostered both the accretion of physical layers and the accrual of multiple identities by a Gothic aristocrat in Rome.
Herculaneum from the AD 79 eruption to the medieval period: analysis of the documentary, iconographic and archaeological sources, with new data on the beginning of exploration at the ancient town
pp. 303–340 Domenico Camardo
This article, divided into two main parts, first analyses the archaeological data for a return to the site of Herculaneum after its destruction in the AD 79 eruption. The evidence includes a necropolis above the Roman town, along with burials and other finds in the Herculaneum area up to the late antique period. The second part looks at how the medieval settlement of Resina grew up over ancient Herculaneum and how new archaeological research has demonstrated that tunnelling was already being carried out to retrieve marble and building materials from the Roman town in the fourteenth century. This occurred sporadically, but it seems to have continued, without being continuous, through the subsequent centuries and pre-dates by several centuries the so-called ‘re-discovery’ of Herculaneum in 1710, which took place over twenty years before the beginning of systematic excavations in 1738.
Notes from Rome 2012–13
pp. 341–350 Robert Coates-Stephens
This gazette presents to the reader outside Rome news of recent archaeological activity (primarily in 2012, but also in the first part of 2013), gleaned from public lectures, conferences, exhibitions and newspaper reports.
Abstract from Papers of the BSR Vol. 80 (2012)
Continuing the debate on Rome’s earliest circuit walls
pp. 1–44 Seth G. Bernard
Rome’s pre-Imperial circuit walls pose a particular problem of reconstruction: collectively, their 11 km course represents the largest single monument of the early city, but our understanding of this structure is based on an assemblage of several dozen disparate archaeological sites. After tracing the interpretation of these fragments from antiquity to the present, this article examines the literary, topographical and archaeological evidence for the wall’s character and date. Ultimately, the non-archaeological data are inconclusive, and the material evidence seems to affirm an early phase (sixth century BC) focused on individual hilltops, rather than encompassing all hills within a full course. Following this logic, I continue to question the presence of a unified circuit wall at Rome prior to the mid-Republic (fourth century BC). A concluding section reviews the historical circumstances in support of this view.
Dynastic politics, defeat, decadence and dining: Cleopatra Selene on the so-called ‘Africa’ dish from the Villa della Pisanella at Boscoreale
pp. 45–64 Jane Draycott
This article examines the so-called ‘Africa’ dish, part of a treasure trove of silver table-ware discovered in a cistern at the Villa della Pisanella, a villa rustica destroyed in the eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79. It proposes a new interpretation of the dish’s iconography and argues that the woman in the centre of the emblema is Cleopatra Selene, while the attributes surrounding her reference her parents Cleopatra VII and Marcus Antonius, her brothers Alexander Helios and Ptolemy Philadelphus, her husband Juba II of Mauretania, and their mythological ancestor the demi-god Heracles. Thus the emblema serves as a meditation on the fates of Antony and Cleopatra VII, descendants of Heracles who chose the path of vice, a choice that resulted in their defeat by Octavian at the Battle of Actium. Octavian’s virtue, victory and clemency, combined with his guardianship of their children, ensured the subsequent promotion of their daughter Cleopatra Selene as a key figure in his dynastic and political strategy, through her marriage to Juba II and the couple’s appointment as client rulers of Mauretania. Also supposedly descended from Heracles, Juba II and Cleopatra Selene chose to follow in their illustrious ancestor’s footsteps along the path of virtue. In common with other pieces from the treasure trove, the ‘Africa’ dish alludes to recent historical events and personages, utilizes death as a means of promoting the enjoyment of life, and incorporates popular elements of Greek mythology, all the while offering banqueters an erudite puzzle to solve during the course of their banquet.
Aphrodisian marble from the Göktepe quarries: the Little Barbarians, Roman copies from the Attalid Dedication in Athens
pp. 65–87 Donato Attanasio, Matthias Bruno, Walter Prochaska and Alì Bahadir Yavus
The marble of seven under-lifesize sculptures of barbarians, now in the archaeological museums of Naples, Venice and the Vatican, commonly considered to be Roman copies of the Pergamene Lesser Dedication in Athens, comes from the Göktepe marble quarries near Aphrodisias, as is shown by isotopic, electron paramagnetic resonance, trace analyses, and by petrographic data. Since this marble was used mostly by Aphrodisian artists, this finding confirms, on the basis of scientific data, previous hypotheses on the origin of the sculptors who manufactured the statues. Reliable discrimination from similar fine-grained Asiatic marbles, such as Docimium, is possible primarily on the basis of the composition of the Göktepe marbles, which have unusually low concentrations of manganese and high concentrations of strontium. Present knowledge of the history of the quarries and the distribution of their marbles seems to rule out the possibility that the sculptures date from the late Republican period and strongly support the opinion, previously proposed on stylistic grounds, that they were manufactured in Rome by Aphrodisian sculptors probably during the first half of the second century ad.
Soldiers and equestrian rank in the third century AD
pp. 89–123 Caillan Davenport
This article considers a group of inscriptions, ranging in date from the late second to late third centuries ad, which indicates that low-ranked members of the Roman army gained access to equestrian rank in this period. The inscriptions attest two interrelated phenomena: (1) the promotion of soldiers to posts in the militiae equestres, a series of officer commands usually held by men from the ordo equester; and (2) grants of equestrian status to soldiers’ sons, many of whom were only very young. These developments represent a marked departure from the circumstances that prevailed in the early Empire, when equestrian rank could be bestowed only by the emperor on men who possessed a census qualification of 400,000 sesterces. In this article, I propose that successive emperors gave soldiers greater access to the militiae equestres, and in some cases awarded equestrian rank to their sons, because they recognized the widespread desire for social mobility among the ranks of the army. The widening of access to equestrian rank within the Roman army contributed to the devaluation of this status over the course of the third century AD.
Deconstructing the symbolic city: Jerome as guide to late antique Rome
pp. 125–144 Lucy Grig
This article considers the writings of Saint Jerome as a source for writing a cultural history of the city of Rome in late antiquity. Jerome is of course, in many respects, an unreliable witness but his lively and often conflicted accounts of the city do none the less provide significant insights into the city during an age of transition. He provides a few snippets for the scholar of topography, but these do not constitute the main attraction. Jerome’s city of Rome appears above all as a textual palimpsest: variously painted in Vergilian colours as Troy and frequently compared with the biblical cities of Babylon, Bethlehem and Jerusalem. In the final analysis, it is argued, Jerome’s Rome is surprisingly unstable, indeed a ‘soft city’.
Reconstructing the later eighth-century claustrum at San Vincenzo al Volturno
pp. 145–157 Richard Hodges, Sarah Leppard and John Mitchell
This article re-examines the topography of the late eighth-century monastery of San Vincenzo al Volturno following a recent far-reaching reinterpretation of the ninth-century phases of the monastery. In particular, it proposes a hypothetical location for the monks’ dormitory and a palace beside the river Volturno. As a result, it suggests the outlines of the first claustral plan for the monastery.
Thirteenth-century seigniorial institutions and officials of the Guidi counts
pp. 157–188 Tommaso Casini
This paper illustrates some aspects of rural lordship in thirteenth-century north and central Italy, namely the territorial framework for the exercise of seigniorial powers and the seigniorial officials who administered the lords’ dominions. How were seigniorial territories organized from an institutional point of view? How did the lords manage the adjustments and changes occurring in their lordships due to inheritance, purchases and sales of seigniorial rights? How was that framework connected to the institutional organization of rural communities? Who were the men who administered those lordships and how long did the connection between the families of those officials and the lords last? These are the questions I have tried to answer through the study of deeds (recorded in charters and notarial registers) regarding the Guidi counts, a family belonging to the upper aristocracy of north-central Italy. This study focuses on institutional matters, but in the section devoted to the relations between lords and seigniorial officials a prosopographical approach is adopted. The dynamics investigated in this study were fundamental in the historical evolution of the north-central Italian countryside, and their analysis provides useful material for further comparison with analogous phenomena in other parts of Europe.
Paintings for Dominican nuns: a new look at the images of saints, scenes from the New Testament and Apocrypha, and episodes from the life of Saint Catherine of Siena in the medieval apse of San Sisto Vecchio in Rome
pp. 189–232 Joan Barclay Lloyd
Fragments of frescoes were found in the late nineteenth century on the medieval apse wall, hidden behind the fifteenth-century chancel, of the Dominican nunnery church of San Sisto Vecchio, Rome. They were painted in two phases, one in the late thirteenth or early fourteenth century, the other approximately a century later. When they were restored in 1990–2, two new scenes came to light. This paper reconsiders the murals of both phases, including the images uncovered during the restoration campaigns. Historical evidence shines new light on the medieval patrons of the nunnery, who were relatives of individual nuns, and reveals the social context in which buildings and paintings were provided for the convent. It is argued that the frescoes were designed for the Dominican nuns, whose religious ideals are reflected in their iconography. Up until now studies of these murals have not paid much attention to their socio-historical importance, nor the Dominican significance of the images, even in two scenes from the life of Saint Catherine of Siena. Accordingly, this study contributes to the discussion of the frescoes by placing them in a ‘Dominican’ framework, attempting to show what they may have meant to the medieval nuns in the convent.
Panvinio and descriptio: renditions of history and antiquity in the late Renaissance
pp. 233–256 William Stenhouse
This article argues that Onofrio Panvinio’s 1571 study of the Roman triumph embodies a central innovation of sixteenth-century classical scholarship, the use of visual reconstructions alongside textual accounts to communicate the details of ancient ceremonies. Panvinio built on the work of predecessors, most notably Pirro Ligorio, to produce a densely-detailed image of the triumphal procession in the style of Roman bas-reliefs, using the evidence of coins, friezes and texts. This illustration can be seen as an alternative historical rendition, rather than as an accompaniment to a textual description of the triumph. More generally, it reveals the creativity of Renaissance antiquarianism, a movement usually seen as devoted to the dry accumulation of evidence about antiquity, not its imaginative interpretation.
Opening the frontier: the Gubbio–Perugia frontier in the course of history
pp. 257–294 Simon Stoddart, Pier Matteo Barone, Jeremy Bennett, Letizia Ceccarelli, Gabriele Cifani, James Clackson, Irma della Giovampaola, Carlotta Ferrara, Francesca Fulminante, Tom Licence, Caroline Malone, Laura Matacchioni, Alex Mullen, Federico Nomi, Elena Pettinelli, David Redhouse and Nicholas Whitehead
The frontier between Gubbio (ancient Umbria) and Perugia (ancient Etruria), in the northeast part of the modern region of Umbria, was founded in the late sixth century BC. The frontier endured in different forms, most notably in the late antique and medieval periods, as well as fleetingly in 1944, and is fossilized today in the local government boundaries. Archaeological, documentary and philological evidence are brought together to investigate different scales of time that vary from millennia to single days in the representation of a frontier that captured a watershed of geological origins. The foundation of the frontier appears to have been a product of the active agency of the Etruscans, who projected new settlements across the Tiber in the course of the sixth century BC, protected at the outer limit of their territory by the naturally defended farmstead of Col di Marzo. The immediate environs of the ancient abbey of Montelabate have been studied intensively by targeted, systematic and geophysical survey in conjunction with excavation, work that is still in progress. An overview of the development of the frontier is presented here, employing the data currently available.
A hundred years of Roman history: historiography and intellectual culture
pp. 295–323 Christopher J. Smith
In 2010, the Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies achieved its centenary. In 2012, the British School at Rome, which was closely linked to the origins of the Roman Society, celebrates the centenary of its Royal Charter. This marked the formal establishment of the distinctively broad and interdisciplinary remit of the BSR by the inclusion of humanities, art and architecture in a single institution. The combination of these two anniversaries has given rise to this attempt to think through some of the paths that Roman studies have taken, and to understand them within the context of broader developments in particularly British and Italian historiography. The Roman Society and the British School at Rome have many points of connection, both in terms of individuals and in terms of research interest. Recent work on the development of a British historical tradition has shown that it remains important to ground the reading of historical scholarship within the intellectual trajectory of its practitioners. This is, therefore, an argument about how the research represented in the Journal of Roman Studies, and conducted at the British School at Rome, and ultimately more widely, should be seen in a historiographical context.
Notes from Rome 2011–12
pp. 325–34 Robert Coates-Stephens
This gazette presents to the reader outside Rome news of recent archaeological activity (primarily in 2011, but also in the first part of 2012), gleaned from public lectures, conferences, exhibitions and newspaper reports.
Abstracts from Papers of the BSR Vol. 79 (2011)
Obesity, corpulence and emaciation in Roman art
pp. 1–41 Mark Bradley
This article explores the significance of sculptural and painted representations of ‘overweight’ and ‘underweight’ body types in the visual culture of Roman Italy from the fourth century BC through to the late Empire, and considers the relationship of this imagery to Greek and Hellenistic precedents. In spite of the topical character of fat in 21st-century sociology, anthropology and medical science, obesity and emaciation in the ancient world remain almost completely unexplored. This article sets out to examine the relationship of fat and thin bodies to power, wealth, character and behaviour, and seeks to identify patterns and continuities in the iconography of fleshiness and slenderness across a stretch of several hundred years. Such bodies could be evaluated in a number of different ways, and this article exposes the diverse — and sometimes contradictory — responses to body fat in the art and culture of the Roman world. It first examines the significance of obesity and emaciation in language, literature and medicine, and then discusses visual representations under three headings: ‘Fertility’; ‘The marginal and the ridiculous’, examining the relationship between body fat, humour and figures at the edge of civilized society; and ‘Portraits’, exploring fat and thin in the portraiture of real-life individuals in the realms of philosophy, Hellenistic rulership, Etruscan funerary art and Roman public sculpture.
Roman topography and Latin diction
pp. 43–69 S.J. Heyworth
This article contains five notes on Roman topography. The first three briefly argue (1) that the uia Tecta supposedly to be placed in the Campus Martius has perhaps arisen from corruption of uia Recta; (2) that the temple of Juturna, placed by Ovid near the arches of the Aqua Virgo, could not have stood where the Largo Argentina now is, but further north, perhaps in the grounds of Santa Maria in Via; and (3) that the rites of Anna Perenna described by Ovid in Fasti 3 took place near the Mausoleum of Augustus, and not at the recently discovered spring near Piazza Euclide. Note (4) exhibits the evidence for regarding the twin summits of the Capitol and the Arx as the duo luci between which the Asylum was set up, and goes on to suggest that Vergil and Ovid may have used the name Ianiculum to refer to the Arx; (5) demonstrates that in with the name of a hill can refer to any site from the foot up, and builds on this in arguing that the phrase Concordia in Arce refers to a temple constructed where the slope rises from the Forum.
Men without hope
pp. 71–94 Ulrike Roth
The article argues that the passages typically employed to document the Romans’ exploitation of chained slaves in the Italian countryside from the mid-Republic into the Principate actually have a quite different meaning. The servus vinctus mentioned by Columella, Pliny and others is a label that became attached to slaves who were subjected (at least once) to punishment through chaining. The punishment reduced the value of the slave and, hence, it was a requirement upon sale to indicate whether a slave had been subjected to such chaining, that is whether they were servi vincti or servi soluti. What the passages in question do not show is how the Romans worked these or other slaves. Whatever their working conditions, the fate of servi vincti became worse in the Empire as a result of the lex Aelia Sentia that decreed that servi vincti could not receive Roman citizenship upon manumission: they had thus become men without hope.
Excavating the Roman peasant I: excavations at Pievina (GR)
pp. 95–145 Mariaelena Ghisleni, Emanuele Vaccaro and Kim Bowes, with contributions by Antonia Arnoldus, Michael MacKinnon and Flavia Marani
Begun in 2009, the Roman Peasant Project was designed to excavate the smallest sites found in field survey and to analyse the diet, economies, land use and landscapes of the Roman peasant. The Project’s excavations at the site of Pievina are presented here, and suggest a more complex image of Roman peasant life in the late Republic and late antiquity than current assumptions would anticipate, including surplus production, a high degree of monetization and ties to urban markets.
The Roman ceramic material from field walking in the environs of Nepi
pp. 147–240 Philip Mills and Ulla Rajala
This paper explores the ceramic assemblage of the Nepi Survey Project from the third century BC to the seventh century ad. The surface collection allows the detailed characterization of chronology, ware, fabric supply and functional characteristics. The assemblage shows a settlement explosion in the early second century BC, with another major rise from the Augustan period. The sharp decline in the late second to early third centuries AD is visible here, as it is throughout the region. The later peaks of the late fourth to mid-fifth and the mid-sixth centuries AD conform to the late Roman sequence from Mola di Monte Gelato. The dominant pottery class is the oxidized coarse-wares, at 73%. The distribution of the different fabrics, including some of regional supply, suggests a number of different marketing mechanisms. Fine-wares and terra sigillata combined at 3% is what would be expected in the fringes of the Empire. The amphora class makes up over 5% of the assemblage, with the most variety exhibited at large villas and suburban halos. The most important supply originated from North Africa, with fish sauce as the main import. The functional analysis allows the definition of a ritual structure in the proximity of the cemeteries of the Massa area with highly varied types related to eating and drinking. The ceramic building material shows the importance of Campanian contacts although the lack of imbrices suggests that many tile scatters derive from reused material.
The public image of the Severan women
pp. 241–273 Clare Rowan
Coinage remains one of the best resources from which to gain an insight into the public image of empresses in the Roman Empire. This article employs a quantitative approach to the coinage of the Severan women, utilizing coin hoards to gain an idea of the frequency of particular coin types. The result offers a nuanced and contextual assessment of the differing public images of the Severan empresses and their role within wider Severan ideology. Evidence is presented to suggest that in this period there was one workshop at the mint dedicated to striking coins for the empresses. The Severan women played a key connective role in the dynasty, a position communicated publicly through their respective numismatic images. By examining the dynasty as a whole, subtle changes in image from empress to empress and from reign to reign can be identified. During the reign of Elagabalus, the divergence in imagery between Julia Soaemias and Julia Maesa is so great that we can perhaps see the influence of these women on their own numismatic image.
Ante oculus ponere: vision and imagination in Flavio Biondo’s Roma Triumphans
pp. 275–298 Frances Muecke
This article examines two ekphrastic digressions from book 2 of Flavio Biondo’s Roma Triumphans (1459), both occurring in the section on the festivals of ancient Rome. The first is an eye-witness account of a celebration mounted in Piazza Navona in Rome to mark the defeat of the Turks at Belgrade in 1456; the second is an imaginative recreation of the horse race at the Equirria, as Biondo envisions it taking place in the streetscape of ancient Rome. Both digressions serve one of Biondo’s most important purposes, the linking of ancient and modern Rome. The aim of the discussion is to demonstrate the importance of visualization in Biondo’s framing of Roma Triumphans as a whole. In this aspect too he was a powerful model for later antiquarian writing.
The ‘Minerva Medica’ and the Schola Medicorum: Pirro Ligorio and Roman toponymy
pp. 275–328 Ian Campbell
The article explores how, when and why Pirro Ligorio (c. 1513–83) chose to link a sanctuary dedicated to Minerva Medica, listed in the fourth-century AD Regionary Catalogues of the monuments of Rome as being on the Esquiline, with the late antique decagonal pavilion, near Termini, which had the second largest dome in Rome after the Pantheon. It establishes that the catalyst was the unearthing of a several statues, including one of Minerva, in 1552. The fate of these finds is examined, as well as Ligorio’s attempt to locate the mysterious Schola Medicorum on the same site.
Nomos, identity and otherness: Ciro Poggiali’s Diario AOI 1936–1937 and the representation of the Italian colonial world
pp. 329–349 Charles Burdett
The article begins by looking at the body of written and visual material that was produced on the colonial world in the interwar years. It considers various reading strategies that can be applied to this body of work and how it can be addressed through post-colonial criticism. The article argues that the work of the sociologist Peter Berger offers a series of insights into the way in which this material represents the social world, and the notions of collective identity and alterity that are central to that world. In the light of Berger’s thinking on the socially constructed nomos, the essay examines some of the definitions of the relation between metropolitan and subject communities that recur in writings on the reality of colonialism. The essay explores the relationship of an individual author to the nomos of his or her time by looking in detail at one text: the journalist Ciro Poggiali’s diary of the time he spent in Ethiopia in the immediate aftermath of the Italian conquest of the country. It examines how Poggiali’s diary can be interpreted as a complex account of how the coerciveness of the social world is experienced by individual consciousness and how its definitions of racial and cultural belonging can be appropriated or challenged. The essay concludes by arguing that the analysis of strategies for defining identity and otherness within the Italian colonial context can be taken further by working within a comparative framework.
Notes from Rome 2010–11
pp. 351–359 Robert Coates-Stephens
This gazette presents to the reader outside Rome news of recent archaeological activity (primarily in 2010, but also in the first part of 2011), gleaned from public lectures, conferences, exhibitions and newspaper reports.
Abstracts from Papers of the BSR Vol. 78 (2010)
Falerii Novi: further survey of the northern extramural area
pp. 1–38 Sophie Hay, Paul Johnson, Simon Keay and Martin Millett
This paper presents the results of further geophysical survey in the area immediately to the north of the walled city of Falerii Novi. The results, integrated with recently published aerial photographic evidence, further elucidate the sequence of development of the city from its foundation in 241 BC into the Imperial period. They reveal new details of the cemeteries and amphitheatre, as well as raising important issues about land allotment in the vicinity of the city.
Contemporary perspectives on luxury building in second-century BC Rome
pp. 39–61 Marden Nichols
This literary study contributes to an under-researched aspect of Roman cultural history by compiling the contemporary textual evidence for attitudes towards expenditure on private architecture in the second century BC. Little archaeological material survives to document the houses of this period, but close attention to the extant texts reveals a high level of sophistication in the moral values ascribed to domestic construction and decoration. My analysis begins with a survey of relevant fragments from the speeches of Cato the Elder and subsequently focuses almost exclusively on Plautus’s Mostellaria. Passages from these works contradict the image later Roman authors provide of middle Republican Romans as uninterestedin costly or elaborate houses and uncorrupted by a desire for luxury. Early in the second century BC, architectural extravagance had entered the canon of vices already. What is more, Plautus’s Mostellaria provides insight into the perceived differences between other indulgences deemed more likely to depreciate in value or be consumed, and the vice of building, which could be considered an investment.
Exploring the sanctuary of Venus and its sacred grove: politics, cult and identity in Roman Pompeii
pp. 63–106, 347–351 Maureen Carroll
Archaeological investigations conducted at the temple of Venus in Pompeii have demonstrated that the sanctuary was laid out as a porticus triplex and that trees were arranged in the courtyard around three sides of the temple. This landscaping is contemporaneous with the construction of the Roman temple in the middle of the first century BC, and it is one of the earliest sacred groves in the Roman world for which there is archaeological evidence. The results of archaeological fieldwork shed light not only on the landscaping of the site, but also on various important aspects related to the early development of the precinct and land use in colonial Pompeii. A consideration of the archaeological and historical evidence as well as the social circumstances of the city in the first century BC suggests that the temple and sacred grove of the city’s tutelary goddess symbolized both the political identity and the divine sanction of Roman Pompeii.
Substructio et tabularium
pp. 107–132 Filippo Coarelli
The building on the Capitolium known today as the Tabularium is one of the very few surviving monuments of Republican Rome that it is still well preserved and has been studied relatively well. Nevertheless, its function is still not clear. The very name ‘Tabularium’ has been questioned on a number of occasions, and almost certainly is wrong. The recent studies of Nicholas Purcell, Henner von Hesberg and Pier Luigi Tucci are assessed. Having examined in detail the archaeological and historical evidence, the author proposes that this Capitoline complex is the base (substructio) of a triple temple, dedicated to Venus Victrix (the most important, situated at the centre), the Genius publicus populi Romani and Fausta Felicitas. Support for this interpretation is to be found in the fasti fratrum Arvalium for 9 October. It represents clear testimony of power and Sullan ideology, dominating the spaces of traditional politics with immense force. [article in Italian]
The vernae Caprenses: traces of Capri’s Imperial history after Tiberius
pp. 133–143 Dirk Booms
Although Tiberius’s visits to Capri have been documented extensively by ancient authors, and many Roman sites still can be visited on the island, its imperial history after Tiberius remains largely unknown. Much attention has been given to the twelve villas that the emperor supposedly built, of which only a handful have been identified securely, but no major building phases have been attributed to a period later than the traditional Augustan-Tiberian phase. Equally, no visits by other emperors were recorded in the literary sources, although the banishment of Commodus’s wife and sister by the emperor himself at least indicates that the island remained in imperial possession. Furthermore, it continued to be exclusively associated with Tiberius by ancient scholars until as late as the fifth century. To make sense of the fragmentary data pertaining to Capri’s fate after the death of Tiberius, this paper considers the epigraphic sources regarding imperial activity on the island. The existence of unique information on a group of imperial slaves that once served there gives insight into an exceptional event in the organization of imperial households, probably to be dated in the first part of Claudius’s reign, which influenced the further imperial history of the island.
Cooking pots and cooking practice: an African bain-marie?
pp. 145–150 Elizabeth Fentress
This article considers three particular cooking-ware forms, Hayes 23B, 196 and 197. Manufactured in northern Tunisia from as early as the Flavian period, they are by far the most common forms amongst the African finds on western mediterranean sites. However, there are problems in interpreting the ways in which they were used. Here I suggest that the set represents a bain-marie (with a lower vessel that would be half-filled with water; an upper one into which the food would be placed; and a lid). The origins of such vessels are discussed, as well as their role in cooking.
Rome and the transformation of the imperial office in the late fourth–mid-fifth centuries AD
pp. 151–192 Meaghan McEvoy
This paper identifies a hitherto unrecognized reason for the increased imperial presence at Rome from the accession of Honorius in 395 down to the assassination of Valentinian III in 455, in the form of the transformation of the imperial office itself, which was taking place across this period, as a result of the repeated accessions of child-emperors in the late Roman west. These prolonged minority governments, occurring at a point in late Roman history when increased ceremonialization and, of course, Christianization were very much a part of the emperor’s role, also brought with them a greater need for the city of Rome to act as a key political stage for imperial ceremonial display, particularly as the strong support of the wealthy senatorial aristocracy based at Rome became ever more crucial as sources of imperial revenue were lost to the western empire through barbarian invasions. In addition, the foundation of the mausoleum of Honorius, adjacent to Saint Peter’s basilica, and the extensive church building and decoration efforts of the imperial family during the reign of Valentinian III, highlighted the Christian credentials of the western emperor, and challenge the long-held view that bishops of Rome had already taken over the role of ‘emperor’ within the city by the fifth century.
The role of late antique art in early Christian worship: a reconsideration of the iconography of the ‘starry sky’ in the ‘Mausoleum’ of Galla Placidia
pp. 193–217, 352–354 Ellen Swift and Anne Alwis
Drawing upon Elsner’s notion of ‘mystic viewing’ and contextual written sources that describe the decoration of church interiors and the symbolic importance of light and the stars in early Christian exegesis, this paper re-examines vault mosaics of the starry sky, chiefly those within the so-called ‘Mausoleum’ of Galla Placidia in Ravenna. It emphasizes the active role of the decorative scheme in late antiquity; and the role of the artwork as not just exemplifying, but mediating, early Christian worship. The suggestion is made that the visual effects exhibited by the mosaic are instrumental in creating a particular relationship with the viewer in antiquity, in which the stars may have been viewed not only as a representation of the sky, but as a concrete manifestation of the radiant power of the saints in their intercessory role between earth and heaven.
Warmundus of Ivrea and episcopal attitudes to death, martyrdom and the millennium
pp. 219–263 Gillian Mackie
Warmundus, bishop of Ivrea in the latter half of the tenth century, is known for his wide-reaching achievements as a patron of both architecture and the illustrated book. He was also a poet. This paper focuses on the period late in Warmundus’s life when he provided new liturgical books for his cathedral. The illustrations he chose for his Sacramentary reveal that in his old age his focus was on death, whether of the ordinary Christian, or of the martyrs of the faith. Two series of miniatures from the Sacramentary are without parallel among the surviving manuscripts of his day. One set of ten illustrates, in sequence, the liturgical prayers for use in sickness and death, while a unique series of three full-page miniatures accompanies the text for All Saints’ Day and depicts the suffering of the martyrs in graphic detail. I examine the possible sources for these images in manuscript and monumental art, as well as in literature, notably the Peristephanon Liber of Prudentius. Possible influences on Warmundus’s choice of imagery include his advanced age, the unsettled and dangerous political climate of his day, and the approach of the first millennium, with its associated fears that the end of the world was at hand. All of these factors are examined in the context of the illustrations he chose for his manuscripts. His interests, as demonstrated in these illustrations, may well have been shared with other less well-documented bishops of his era, whose works have not survived.
Pirro Ligorio and two columna caelata drawings at Windsor Castle
pp. 265–287 Ian Campbell and Robert W. Gaston
The paper gathers together graphic and textual evidence by Pirro Ligorio and others on an extraordinary example of a Roman columna caelata. It establishes beyond doubt that the column existed and that it was excavated from the seabed offshore from Misenum by Ludovico Montalto in the 1520s. The column was brought to Naples but languished on the shore or quayside at the Castello dell’Ovo probably until the mid-sixteenth century, by which time it was severely weathered, after which nothing is heard of it. The authors discuss the possibilities that the column may have been part of a triumphal arch or a free-standing votive or honorific column of the type seen on the famous harbour landscape excavated at Stabiae, which probably represents Misenum.
Notes from Rome 2009–10
pp. 289–295 Robert Coates-Stephens
This gazette presents to the reader outside Rome news of recent archaeological activity (primarily in 2009, but also in the first part of 2010), gleaned from public lectures, conferences, exhibitions and newspaper reports.
Abstracts from Papers of the BSR Vol. 77 (2009)
Integrating lidar and geophysical surveys at Falerii Novi and Falerii Veteres (Viterbo)
pp. 1–27 and 335–43 Rachel Opitz
The Roman town of Falerii Novi and the pre-Roman Falerii Veteres are revisited through a combination of lidar (airborne laser scanning) and geophysical survey data in this paper. The lidar survey provides detailed information on the topographically complex edges of these sites for the first time, and a number of new features are identified. Viewing these features in the context of both the topographic and geophysical data, these peripheral urban areas are explored, both as zones for movement and as façades. Through these examples, the potential contributions made by lidar to our overall understanding of pre-Roman and Roman urbanism are considered.
Lixus (Morocco): from a Mauretanian sanctuary to an Augustan palace
pp. 29–64 Carmen Aranegui and Ricardo Mar
This article reassesses the work of M. Ponsich, published in 1981, on the monumental centre of Lixus (Morocco). He interpreted the structures found in the excavations begun by Tarradell in 1948 as a set of linked sanctuaries, principally of the Roman period. This new examination of the preserved remains, together with more recent excavations, allows us to reassess this area of the site. It is possible to identify the remains of a large sanctuary of the Mauretanian period (fourth–first centuries BCe), which includes temples, gardens and storehouses. In the period of Juba II (30–10 BCe) a palace was constructed over the gardens, adjacent to the earlier temples. This residential complex had a Corinthian atrium and two peristyles. It has been possible to identify also the oecus triclinaris, cryptoporticus, exedrae and halls. We propose that this palace is one of the residences of Juba II.
Revisiting the pediment of the Palatine metroön: a Vergilian interpretation
pp. 65–99 Roslynne Bell
In this article the pediment of the Magna Mater’s Augustan temple on the Palatine is re-examined. Arguments in favour of reference to the sellisternium, and traditional identifications of the composition’s main figures as either Attis or galli, are considered. An alternative reading of the pediment is proposed. Using the pine branch as a key, Vergil’s Aeneid is put forward as an iconographic ‘blueprint’ for a scene in which the Magna Mater is celebrated as both a national goddess of Rome and the tutelary deity of Augustus and the Julio-Claudii. The figures in question are re-identified as personifications of the Trojan Mount Ida and the Palatine Hill — important loci of worship in the east and the west, and symbols of the dual heritage shared by the Magna Mater, Rome and the princeps himself.
A baker’s funerary relief from Rome
pp. 101–123 Andrew Wilson and Katia Schörle
This article presents a previously unpublished Roman travertine relief showing scenes of breadmaking, currently in the restaurant Romolo in Trastevere in Rome. It presumably came originally from a tomb monument, possibly in the vicinity, and might be dated on grounds of material and style anywhere between the very late Republic and the Flavian period. From left to right it shows two men delivering sacks of grain, a man loading grain into an animal-driven mill, three men kneading dough by hand, three more shaping loaves, and one putting loaves into the oven. The article discusses parallels in other reliefs of bakery scenes, and highlights the importance of this one for the evidence that it provides for the extent of the division of labour in a fairly large-scale bakery, in which the breadmaking process is divided into stages, each carried out by different groups of people.
Trajanic building projects on base-metal denominations and audience targeting
pp. 125–158 Annalisa Marzano
Imperial coinage is generally recognized as one of the media used by the central administration to spread specific ideological messages, even though the extent to which specific messages could be understood across the wide spectrum of Roman society remains open to debate. Even more problematic is the question of whether specific coin types were chosen according to the different denominations (precious versus base metal), thus taking into account the social and geographical background of the potential coin-users. This study investigates the possibility of audience targeting in Trajanic coins with architectural types of the mint of Rome and then compares these issues with similar coins minted under the Flavians and Hadrian. The analysis highlights how building projects that had primary relevance for Rome’s populace, such as the restoration of the Circus Maximus, were commemorated on base metal alone, whereas projects that had a wider resonance across the empire, as in the case of the Forum of Trajan, were depicted on precious and base metal, thus showing that in specific cases a clear pattern of audience targeting can be detected.
Excavations at Le Mura di Santo Stefano, Anguillara Sabazia
pp. 159–223 Robert Van de Noort and David Whitehouse
This report presents the results of excavations undertaken between 1977 and 1981 at the remarkable ruins known as Le Mura di Santo Stefano, situated near Anguillara Sabazia, just under 3 km south of Lake Bracciano. The earliest phase of occupation concerned a first-century AD farm. Around AD 200 a range of buildings was constructed, including a three-storey rectangular building lavishly decorated with nineteen types of marble, suggesting that the complex was a luxury retreat, possibly part of a latifundium. There is evidence for further activity in the third or early fourth century. In the ninth century, after a period of abandonment, part of the complex was converted into the church of Santo Stefano. The rectangular building was reoccupied and the remaining ruins used as a cemetery. It is argued that the site may have functioned as the centre of a medieval estate, part of a papal domusculta, or alternatively as a fundus of a monastic establishment. In the eleventh century the site was deserted after the skeletal remains of a least 90 individuals, along with the bones of three dogs, were interred in a pit and capped with several pieces of Roman marble sculpture.
Medieval wall painting in the church of Santa Maria in Pallara, Rome: the use of objective dating criteria
pp. 225–255 and 344 Laura Marchiori
The medieval wall paintings in Santa Maria in Pallara have received little scholarly attention, perhaps on account of uncertainty about their dating; there is no independent textual documentation for their production. Traditionally dated to the tenth century, the paintings exhibit an iconography more common to twelfth- and thirteenth-century contexts, a representation of the Apostles seated on the shoulders of Prophets, which no doubt contributes to their neglect, since the later monuments are so well documented. However, the iconography derives from Roman traditions of church decoration, traditions that may be utilized in an analysis of the paintings in order to arrive at an independent dating based on their form and content alone. Following a methodology developed by John Osborne for dating undocumented medieval wall paintings in Rome, this article analyzes the objective dating criteria of the Santa Maria in Pallara paintings; namely, these criteria are physical setting, function, subject matter, inscriptions and pictorial technique. Such analyses suggest that a tenth-century date is suitable for the paintings, which are well categorized in the history of Roman pictorial technique between securely dated ninth-century monuments and those dated to the eleventh and twelfth centuries.
Governor and government in sixteenth-century Rome
pp. 257–272 Miles Pattenden
The quantity of government in Rome and the role of the pope and his officials in it increased rapidly during the sixteenth century. This article takes the figure of the city’s Governor as a case study and, using legislative, archival and financial records, asks how we can measure that process and what it reveals about the aspirations of Romans for government. It concludes that this expansion was not the result of deliberate centralization or rationalization by sixteenth-century popes, but that different groups within Roman society exploited the idea of papal authority to advance their own interests and encourage political stability. Finally, it considers the consequences this had for the development of Rome as a polity and argues that in the centuries before the French revolution, far from being a cause of stagnation and decline, papal government continued to evolve to meet the expectations made of it by the ancien régime society.
The Villa Pigneto Sacchetti excavation: a new interpretation
pp. 273–290 Phil Perkins and Sally Schafer
The remains of the seventeenth-century Villa Pigneto Sacchetti lie in Rome to the northwest of the Vatican City, on a steep slope in the Valle dell’Inferno in the regional park of Monte Mario. Designed for the Sacchetti family by Pietro da Cortona, it was one of a limited number of his architectural projects to be built. In 1990 the villa was believed lost, and so a project was devised to locate and explore the material remains; and in 1992 we partially excavated the villa and subsequently published an excavation report (published in Papers of the British School at Rome 68 (2000)). In 2008, Jörg Martin Merz’s much-awaited monograph, Pietro da Cortona and Roman Baroque Architecture, was published. Without any doubt, this book makes a major contribution to the architectural literature of the Roman Baroque. It includes a chapter on the Villa Pigneto Sacchetti, which takes issue with some of our findings. This article addresses several points raised about our work, and offers a reinterpretation of the building history of the villa that aims to reconcile the divergent opinions and incorporate advances in scholarship since 2000.
Notes from Rome
pp. 291–297 Robert Coates-Stephens
This gazette aims to present to a readership outside Rome a newsletter of recent archaeological activity (chiefly for 2008, although also early 2009) gleaned from public lectures, conferences, exhibitions and newspaper reports.